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    高分的管理學essay—Influence of the Scientific Management Theory on Modern Organizational Designs

    論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-09-21 13:27:21 來源:www.mobile1apps.com 作者:留學作業網

    管理學essay范文——科學管理理論對現代組織設計的影響。本文是一篇留學生管理專業的Essay寫作格式參考范文。當代的組織運作以有效的計劃技術、專業化管理、勞動分工、管理人員和工人之間的正式互動、專業化和創新為中心,這些都是為實現特定目標而設計的。這些組織功能和運作都是由Fredrick Taylor在20世紀提出的科學管理模式的概念所決定的。作為一名機械工程師,泰勒設計了科學的管理思想,為工業的運行提供了效率。在他任職期間,行業管理存在多種異?,F象,組織缺乏正式的管理系統。因此,泰勒的管理原則尋求通過提高工人在他們的工作階層的生產力來消除這些違規行為。雖然現代組織設計展示了泰勒的科學管理原則,但對他的主張也有一些批評。因此,盡管科學管理理論對現代組織職能產生了影響,但它也顯示出許多弱點和優點。以下是管理學essay范例寫作的全部內容,是一篇符合國外大學Essay寫作格式要求的范文,供參考。

    管理學參考范文

    The contemporary organizational operations center on effective planning techniques, specialized management, the division of labor, formalized interactions between managers and workers, and specializations and innovations, which are designed to achieve specific objectives. These organizational functions and operations are attributable to the concepts of the scientific management model proposed by Fredrick Taylor in the 20th century. As a mechanical engineer, Taylor devised scientific management ideologies that provided effectiveness in the running of industries. During his time, the management of industries comprised multiple anomalies and organizations lacked formal managing systems. Hence, Taylor’s management principles sought to eliminate these irregularities by improving the workers’ productivity in their class of work. Although modern organizational designs exhibit Taylor’s scientific management principles, there have been several criticisms against his propositions. Therefore, the theory of scientific management exhibits numerous weaknesses and strengths despite its influence on modern organizational functions.

    The Scientific Management Principles科學管理原則

    Taylor utilized systematic analysis and experiments to propose four fundamental principles to lay the foundation of scientific management. The first standard involved establishing the scientific technique to substitute the “rule of thumb” practices in management (Taylor 2016). The application of this alternative was scientific thus provided an opportunity for managers to analyze management challenges in their organizations. In this regard, the scientific approach was requisite since there was a need to utilize systematic experiments. Taylor’s ideas are crucial in solving the problems faced in today’s managerial decision-making and production processes. This scientific technique systematized managerial operations as opposed to the rule of thumb, which was marred by many inconsistencies. Therefore, the development of scientific principles and laws for tasks was designed to replace the traditional methods that lacked equity.

    The second principle envisioned in the scientific management theory is selecting, providing work development, and offering training sessions to every worker. This principle was designed to replace disorganized management that left the workers to lead and train themselves on work-related duties in the industry. Taylor (2016) noted that a highly competent or qualified person occupies a position and leads the followers efficiently and systematically. The method has enabled organizations to develop a scientific payment system that considers the worker’s level of output and efficiency in the production of goods and services. Thus, the determination of a worker’s level of output has been instrumental in improving the system of management. 

    Another scientific management principle centered on the relationship between organizational leadership and workers. The principle sanctions the leadership attention to the needs of the workers thus requires managers to develop a formal working relationship through teamwork. In this case, the principle ensures that the workforce adheres to scientifically developed methods. Enhancing the relationship between leaders and workers enhances efficiency that further leads to the accomplishment of tasks within the required time. Taylor’s (2016) experiments are integral in determining the quantity of work that a hardworking person can deliver within a day. Moreover, the principle has helped to improve the work performance of every employee dramatically by reducing the tendency of workers to perform duties slowly. Taylor’s work on scientific management indicates that enhancing the workers’ standards can help to increase their performance.

    另一個科學的管理原則以組織領導和工人之間的關系為中心。該原則制裁領導關注工人的需要,因此要求管理者通過團隊合作來發展正式的工作關系。在這種情況下,這一原則確保了員工遵循科學發展的方法。加強領導和工人之間的關系可以提高效率,從而在規定的時間內完成任務。泰勒(2016)的實驗在確定一個勤奮的人一天內可以完成的工作量方面是不可或缺的。此外,這一原則還有助于大幅提高每個員工的工作績效,減少了員工緩慢履行職責的傾向。泰勒在科學管理方面的工作表明,提高工人的標準有助于提高他們的績效。

    The final principle accentuates the importance of ensuring the division of labor between the managers and their employees. This method allows managers to use the scientific management principles in drafting the responsibilities of workers who actualize the duties delegated to them promptly. It is worth noting that the principle of division of labor is applicable across all organizations and its application ensures efficiency in production. Taylor (2016) maintains that specialization of workers in various fields enhances their work performance. The application of this principle ensures organizational efficiency, increases the workers’ wages, lowers production and product costs, and improves employees’ standards of living. Therefore, Taylor’s scientific proposition has enabled managers to delegate duties according to their workers’ abilities, skills, and knowledge.

    The Influence of the Scientific Management Theory in Modern Organizational Designs科學管理理論對現代組織設計的影響

    Strengths優點

    The key tenets of the theory of scientific management are job analysis, job design, workers selection, job incentive, job performance principles, workers attitudes, group processes, organizational development, and change and human factors. Throughout his explanation of the key tenets, Taylor maintained that management should be designed to look after the interests of the employees and the employer, as well as safeguard organization’s prosperity. In this respect, scientific management has numerous strengths, namely enhanced production and efficiency, decreased autocracy due to a positive relationship in the company, improved payment systems, better utilization of resources, and reduced labor and management disputes.

    管理學Essay

    科學管理理論的關鍵原則是工作分析,工作設計,工人選擇,工作激勵,工作績效原則,工人態度,群體過程,組織發展,變化和人的因素。在他對關鍵原則的解釋中,泰勒堅持認為,管理應該被設計為照顧員工和雇主的利益,以及維護組織的繁榮。在這方面,科學的管理有很多優勢,即提高生產和效率,減少專制,因為公司的關系是積極的,完善的支付制度,更好地利用資源,減少勞資糾紛。

    Scientific management focuses on the steady improvement of business operations. Enhanced organizational production is attributable to cooperation and harmonious relationships between the leaders and the workers, thus achieving high levels of teamwork. Subsequently, adherence to scientific management principles ensures the development of a management methodology that enhances purposeful supervision, selection, and training of workers. Many consulting firms have applied this method to their human resource management departments. Taylor’s (2016) scientific management principles play a pivotal role in modern industrial processes to ensure that tasks assigned to workers fit them to enhance their levels of efficiency. In return, the firms reward the employees’ performance to motivate them further to deliver similar outputs. 

    Another important aspect of Taylorism is a decrease in autocracy whereby the management is stimulated to adopt positive relationships between the leadership and the employees. Democratic leadership was evident in Taylor’s principle of cooperation, which positively influences the workers’ output. According to Bain and Company consulting firm, corporations such as Dell, Google, Netflix, and Apple are 40 percent more productive than an average firm (Hartline & Bejou 2012). The high level of production in these companies results from inspiring leadership. In this case, the leaders strive to create harmonious relationships, which promote the workers’ performance. As such, eliminating autocracy is integral in determining the overall organizational output.

    泰勒主義的另一個重要方面是獨裁的減少,借此刺激管理采取積極的關系之間的領導和員工。民主的領導在泰勒的合作原則中得到了明顯的體現,這對工人的產出產生了積極的影響。根據貝恩咨詢公司的數據,戴爾、谷歌、Netflix和蘋果等公司的生產率比一般公司高出40% (Hartline & Bejou, 2012)。這些公司的高水平生產源于鼓舞人心的領導。在這種情況下,領導者努力創造和諧的關系,這促進了員工的績效。因此,消除專制是決定組織整體產出的一個重要因素。

    Improved payment systems, better utilization of resources, and reduced labor and management disputes are essential strengths notable in the scientific management theory. The scientific management principles propose adherence to the piecework payment system. Bell and Martin (2012) postulate that scientific payment uses an incentive system to enhance productivity and further provide high wages to the workers. Secondly, there is efficient utilization of resources and stimulated development, whereby wastage and inefficiency are eliminated. Also, scientific investigations utilized stimulate the company’s growth and enhance the overall development of the country. Regarding labor and management disputes, cordial relationships help to achieve peace in the industry. Hence, the contemporary organizational operations based on Taylor’s principles are crucial in enhancing payment, promoting better utilization of resources, and improving the relationship between the management and the workers.

    Weaknesses缺點

    Despite the criticisms labeled against the scientific management theory, its applicability is relevant in contemporary organizational operations. Initially, Taylor’s propositions were disputed for their inflexibility and rigidity as workers remained adamant to change. In such cases, the organizational leadership should strategize on how to achieve greater flexibility in its workforce. Due to the inflexibility of the scientific management model, several giant organizations such as Google do not apply its principles. Google has mainstreamed Hawthorne ideas, which provide the workers with freedom at their desired time. Unlike Taylor’s (2016) ideas which perceive workers as assets, the Hawthorne model considers them as important business partners, thus increasing their motivation, productivity, and quality of work. Google’s organizational operations indicate that scientific management principles cannot be efficient in large corporations, particularly those that lack job specialization in their organizational structures.

    盡管對科學管理理論的標簽批評,它的適用性是相關的當代組織運作。起初,泰勒的主張因其不靈活和僵化而受到爭議,因為工人們仍然堅持改變。在這種情況下,組織領導應該制定如何在其勞動力中實現更大的靈活性的戰略。由于科學管理模式的不靈活性,像谷歌這樣的幾個大型組織并沒有應用它的原則。谷歌將霍桑的思想主流化,讓工人在他們想要的時間獲得自由。不同于泰勒(2016)的想法,將工人視為資產,霍桑模型認為他們是重要的商業伙伴,從而提高了他們的動機,生產力和工作質量。谷歌的組織運作表明,科學的管理原則在大型企業中是不可能有效的,特別是那些在組織結構中缺乏工作專業化的企業。

    According to the scientific management theory, companies that fail to adapt to changing circumstances in the environment do not incorporate Taylor’s principles of management. This aspect implies that scientific management works better with small organizations that may not react to change immediately. Likewise, the successful implementation of the Taylorism philosophy requires massive investment, which may not be attainable by small firms. For example, training workers, establishing work-study, planning departmental needs, utilizing massive capital. Thus, the aspects of rigidity and lack of flexibility in scientific management principles are the central weaknesses attributed to Taylorism ideologies.

    The inflexibility ingrained in scientific principles establishes a basis for standard operating procedures whereby employees are trained to perform certain duties efficiently. However, workers are constantly exposed to certain duties that cause them to operate like machines to improve productivity and efficiency. Despite the profitable nature of Taylor’s model to businesses, the approach disregards the workers’ welfare. For instance, hamburger cooks at McDonald are trained to cook within two minutes (Bell & Martin 2012). Markedly, scientific management principles create dictatorship through established administrations by controlling all company activities. Thus, the responsibilities for planning and controlling work are solely delegated to the management. In the process, managers deprive workers of their creativity due to repeated tasks that make their jobs tedious, monotonous, and meaningless. As a result, the nature of work demotivates employees, which, in turn, affects their work performance negatively.

    科學原則中根深蒂固的不靈活性為標準操作程序奠定了基礎,員工通過培訓來有效地履行某些職責。然而,工人們不斷地承擔著某些責任,使他們像機器一樣操作,以提高生產力和效率。盡管泰勒的模式對企業來說有利可圖,但這種方法卻忽視了工人的福利。例如,麥當勞的漢堡包廚師被訓練在兩分鐘內做好(Bell & Martin 2012)。顯然,科學的管理原則通過控制所有的公司活動,通過既定的行政管理創造專政。因此,計劃和控制工作的責任完全委托給管理層。在這個過程中,由于重復的任務使員工的工作變得乏味、單調、沒有意義,管理者剝奪了員工的創造力。因此,工作的本質會使員工失去動力,進而消極地影響他們的工作表現。

    Training workers in one or few tasks deny them an opportunity to multitask or handle multiple areas of work. As a result, the company might suffer if they lose critical expertise. A good example is the loss of knowledge and expertise at the British Petroleum Company (BP), which resulted in a massive oil pipeline spill (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development 2011). The company responded to the spill by closing one of the largest pipelines in the U.S. The audit performed in the company indicated that by the time the spillover transpired, BP had operated without a senior corrosion engineer for more than one year. Additionally, employees under job specialization lack multiple applicable skills, thus making it challenging to adapt to new organizational functions. Consequently, job specialization perpetuates unemployment when the company closes its branches. For instance, the closure of BP’s pipeline in Alaska resulted in massive unemployment (Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development 2011). Notably, laid-off workers may experience challenges in adjusting to new occupations. Therefore, Taylor’s ideologies of training workers in a specific way may have adverse effects on an individual and organization.

    The theory of scientific management applies to modern organizational designs effectively. Despite the inherent weaknesses of the model, its extensive use and strengths have been widely hailed and accepted. The approach’s four main principles are determining scientific techniques to replace the traditional method; selecting and offering training to the workers; enhancing the worker-management relationship; and ensuring specialization and division of labor. Therefore, scientific management methods are responsible for enhancing efficiency and workers’ productivity. 

    科學管理理論有效地應用于現代組織設計。盡管該模型存在固有的弱點,但它的廣泛使用和優點已得到廣泛的歡迎和接受。該方法的四個主要原則是確定取代傳統方法的科學技術;對工人進行選拔和培訓;加強勞資關系;確保專業化和分工。因此,科學的管理方法是提高效率和工人生產力的責任。

    References參考文獻

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