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    英文管理學essay格式要求—Challenges of Applying Ethical Theories to Practical Workplace Dilemmas

    論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-09-27 10:38:50 來源:www.mobile1apps.com 作者:留學作業網

    管理學essay范文——將倫理理論應用于實際職場困境的挑戰。本文是一篇留學生管理專業的Essay寫作格式參考范文,關于倫理的理論對那些必須解決工作場所中產生的實際倫理困境的管理者提供的指導很少。倫理學或道德哲學是一個分支,涉及系統化,捍衛和建議的概念的正確或錯誤的行為。倫理學尋求通過捍衛諸如好或壞、對或錯、正義或犯罪等概念來解決人類道德問題......以下是管理學essay范例寫作的全部內容,是一篇符合國外大學Essay寫作格式要求的范文,供參考。

    管理學參考范文

    Theories about Ethics provide very little guidance to managers who must resolve practical ethical dilemmas arising in their workplace.

    Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch that involves systematizing, defending and recommending concepts of right or wrong conduct. Ethics seek to resolve questions of human morality by defending concepts such as good or bad, right or wrong, justice or crime.

    What is an Ethical Dilemma?什么是道德困境?

    There are three conditions that should be present for a state to be considered as an ethical dilemma. The first condition occurs in situations when an individual called an agent must decide about what is the best course of actiont. The second condition is that there must be options of situations to choose from. The third condition is no matter what course of action is taken some ethical principle will be compromised, in other words,no perfect solution is available. (social worker, 2018, p. 1)

    一個國家要被視為道德困境,必須具備三個條件。第一種情況發生在被稱為代理的個體必須決定什么是最佳行動方案的情況下。第二個條件是必須有多種情況可供選擇。第三個條件是,無論采取什么行動,一定的道德原則都會受到損害,換句話說,沒有完美的解決方案。(《社會工作者》,2018,第1頁)

    Ethical Dilemma is a decision-making problem between two possible situations neither of which is actually accepted or can be preferable.

    Some of the theories/models of Ethics are as follows: –

    Egoism – Attitudes in business have often been deemed fundamentally egoistic. The egoist contends that all choices should involve self-promotion as their sole objective.

    Utilitarianism – Utilitarianism theories hold that the moral worth of actions is determined solely by their consequences. An action is right if it leads to the best possible balance of good consequences over bad consequences for all the parties affected.

    Kantian Ethics – in Kantian theories respect for the human being is said to be necessary not just as an option, because human beings possess a moral dignity and therefore should be treated with respect.

    Rights theories – unlike legal rights, human rights are held independently of membership in a state. Human rights evolved from the notion of natural rights. Many influential philosophers have maintained that Ethical theories of some parts of it must be rights-based.

    Virtue Ethics   – Virtue Ethics as it is called descends from the classical Hellenistic tradition in which the cultivation of virtuous traits of character is viewed as mortality’s primary function. (Beauchamp and Bowie, 2018, pp. 12,17,24,(31&32),33)

    Theories about Ethics are present everywhere. All the managers rather all the organizations have their own set of Ethics which must be followed by the managers as well as the rest of the employees. But very often it is seen that not all the theories can be applied in the real working environment.

    Ethical theories gives the manager basis of decision makinhg when ethics are in play because these theories represent lookouts by which managers take guidance when they are about to make certain decisions in an organization. Each theory has different set of points, decision making style or a decision rule.

    倫理理論給管理者提供了決策的基礎,當倫理發揮作用時,因為這些理論代表了監督者,當管理者在組織中要做某些決定時,通過監督者進行指導。每種理論都有不同的點集、決策風格或決策規則。

    To understand Ethical decision making it is important to know that not everybody  makes a decision, in the similar way, using the similar information, employing the same decision rules. If managers wants to realize Ethical decisions properly then there must be some common knowledge or common set of areas that managers seek to achieve if they want to be successful.

    Managers face dilemmas in the workplace but are not aware of it.  To make Ethical decisions managers should consider whether conflicting interests exist in the situation. To do this manager should ask whether one decision harms one or more parties while benefitting others.

    Actual Ethical role of a Manager

    In a broad construction of the ethical role of the manager, managing and leading is said to be integrally ethics-laden tasks because every executive choice affects either people or the natural environment in some way and those effects or impacts should  be taken into account as decisions are made in an organization. A narrower perspective of the ethical role of the manager is that, managers should have sole objective of serving the interests of the shareholder; that is, their sole ethical task is to meet the believable obligation to maximize shareholder wealth that is embedded in the law. The ethical role of managers is much more beyond the actual acceptable responsibility when consideration is given to the multiple stakeholders who constitute the organization being managed and to nature, on which human civilization hinge on for its survival. Therefore, ethics and the actual role of the manager cannot be teased apart. (‘Business Ethics and society’, no date, p. 1)

    在管理者道德角色的廣泛構建中,管理和領導被認為是整體上充滿道德的任務,因為每一個管理者的選擇都會以某種方式影響人或自然環境,這些影響或影響應該在組織中做出決策時加以考慮。從狹義的角度來看,經理的道德角色是,經理的唯一目標應該是為股東的利益服務;也就是說,他們唯一的道德任務是履行嵌入在法律中的股東財富最大化的可信義務??紤]到構成被管理組織的多個利益相關者,以及人類文明賴以生存的自然,管理者的倫理角色遠遠超出了實際可接受的責任。因此,倫理和管理者的實際作用不能分開。(《商業道德與社會》,沒有日期,第1頁)

    管理學Essay

    In the present study business managers were trained in the use of the autonomous method in their decision-making about solving real-life business ethics problems in a one-day educational programme which focused on the training of the autonomous cognitive ability and not on the transfer of moral content, was enough to provide a shift in the mode of decision-making about business ethics problems towards the autonomous ethical function. The conviction that a problem-solving ability is more reliable for the resolution of moral conflicts and problems is based on the knowledge that the same moral principles are not valid everywhere, on every occasion and for everyone. However, nearly all research done in this area, especially in business ethics education, is confined to the study of moral content (for instance Glenn, 1992) and almost neglects investigation of the different methods people use to solve moral problems. Ethical development is understood as the successive improvement of a person’s ability to solve moral problems which he/she encounters in his/her real life. (Kavathatzopoulos, 1994, p. 1)

    Ethics is a very delicate word, easy to say but difficult to practice. Every business has their own drafted Ethical policies which sorry to say mostly stay only in black and white. There was a time when Ethics carried a lot of weight in every walk of life but as the world grew competitive and as the firms grew result oriented the Ethical weightage started facing a downfall. 

    For example: –

    Top management of a technical organization has told their production manager to hire a new employee for the technical work by giving advertisements in newspapers and on the internet. After looking at one of the advertisements one person shows up for the interview and the manager accepts that the person has a very good experience in working in this field and is the proper person for the job and tells him to start the work from the following week,

    Followed by this at the lunchtime the manager of the accounting department of the same organization requests the production manager to appoint his nephew for this technical job. The nephew comes with as good as the working experience as the person he told to start working from the following week. Now here the Ethical dilemma arises, what does the manager is supposed to do? Having found out that both are equally good for the job, but whom should he hire? The person who is the nephew of his friend and the manager of accounts of the same company? Or a person who ethically has the first say?

    緊接著,午餐時間,這家公司會計部門的經理要求生產經理任命他的侄子擔任這項技術工作。這個侄子的工作經驗和他讓他從下周開始工作的人一樣好?,F在道德困境出現了,經理應該怎么做?在發現兩者都適合這份工作后,他應該雇傭誰呢?他朋友的侄子和同一家公司的會計經理?還是一個在道德上有第一發言權的人?

    In this given situation the manager should follow the Ethics and should appoint the person who he interviewed earlier because that person Ethically has the first say for the job, but on the other hand he can’t even ignore the request of his friend and the working manager of accounts of that same organization so somewhere he may be forced by himself to appoint the nephew of his friend working in the same organization.

    Ethical dilemmas can be solved in various ways by giving that the situation is only deceptive and does not actually occur. Solution to Ethical Dilemma involves choosing the greater good and lesser evil.

    The issues of ethical decision making in organizations have received much attention in recent years for a variety of reasons. Managers are not likely to allow their “Ethics” to be directly observed nor it will be acceptable to attempt to manipulate Ethical decision making in the field. A cited survey of Harvard Business review readers showed that one half from an organization reported that managers do not apply the Ethical standards, reasons provided were the preoccupation with gain, lack of reinforcement of ethical behavior, competition and a sense that only “results” are important to supervisors. (‘ethical decision making in organizations.pdf’, no date, p. 3)

    Therefore, in my view theories about Ethics certainly provide very minute guidance to managers who must resolve practical Ethical Dilemma arising in their workplace because at some point a manager might face a situation where a theory about Ethics may not work or even taking into consideration the Egoism Theory which contends that all the outcomes in the organization should have profits as their sole objectives we can say that the managers are keen only on the results or the profits and are not willing to work according to Ethical standards to achieve these results.

    因此,在我看來理論道德當然提供非常分鐘指導管理者必須解決實際的倫理困境出現在他們的工作場所,因為在某種程度上經理可能會面臨一個關于道德的理論可能不工作,甚至考慮的利己主義理論認為組織中的所有結果應該利潤作為他們唯一的目標,我們只能說,經理們敏銳的結果或利潤和不愿意根據道德標準工作以達到這些結果。

    Reference list 參考文獻

    留學生Essay相關專業范文素材資料,盡在本網,可以隨時查閱參考。本站也提供多國留學生課程作業寫作指導服務,如有需要可以咨詢本平臺。

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