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    心理學Essay要求:Milgram and Zimbardo's Experiments on Obedience and Compliance

    論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-05-30 10:57:17 來源:www.mobile1apps.com 作者:留學作業網

    本文是心理學專業的Essay范例,題目是“Milgram and Zimbardo's Experiments on Obedience and Compliance(米爾格拉姆和津巴多關于服從和服從的實驗)”,米爾格拉姆服從實驗,又稱服從權威研究,是社會心理學中非常著名的科學實驗。

    實驗的概念在1963年耶魯大學心理學家斯坦利·米爾格拉姆在《反常與社會心理學雜志》上發表的《服從的行為研究》中首次討論,后來在1974年發表的《服從權威:一種實驗觀點》中也首次討論。這個實驗的目的是測試人類本性的力量來抵抗一個權威的權威,這個權威違背他們的良心發出命令。這個實驗被認為是一個典型的服從實驗,在社會心理學圈有很強的反響。

    The Milgram Obedience experiment, which is also known as the Obedience to Authority Study, is a very well known scientific experiment in social psychology. The concept of the experiment was first discussed in 1963 in the Behavioral Study of Obedience in the Journal of Abnormal and Social Psychology by Yale university psychologist Stanley Milgram and later in his 1974 publication Obedience to Authority: An Experimental View. The purpose of this experiment is to test the power of human nature to resist the authority of an authority who gives an order against their conscience. This experiment was regarded as a typical one about the obedience experiment, and it had strong repercussions in the social psychology circle.

    心理學Essay范例

    The following is some basic processes of the experiment:Milgram first advertised in the newspaper for participants and paid them $4.50 for each trial. Forty people, ranging in age from 25 to 50, were recruited to take part in the experiment. They were told they would take part in an experiment to study the effects of punishment on students’ learning. In the experiment, two people were paired, one as a student and one as a teacher. Who shall be the student and who shall be the teacher shall be determined by lot. The teacher’s task is to read the paired related words. The students must remember the words. Then the student need to choose the correct answer from four opinions after teacher presents a word. If the choice is wrong, the teacher pushes the button and gives the students an electric shock as punishment.

    下面是實驗的一些基本過程:米爾格拉姆首先在報紙上登廣告招募參與者,每次試驗支付他們4.5美元。研究人員招募了40名年齡在25歲到50歲之間的人參加這項實驗。他們被告知,他們將參加一項實驗,研究懲罰對學生學習的影響。在這個實驗中,兩個人被配對,一個是學生,一個是老師。誰是學生,誰是老師將由抽簽決定。教師的任務是閱讀配對的相關單詞。學生必須記住單詞。在老師給出一個單詞后,學生需要從四個觀點中選擇正確的答案。如果選擇錯誤,老師就按下按鈕,并對學生進行電擊作為懲罰。

    Due to prior arrangement, each group actually had only one participant, and the other was an assistant of the experiment. As a result, the participants were always teachers and the assistants were always students. At the beginning of the experiment, an assistant and a participant were placed in two rooms separated by a wall. Electrodes were attached to the students’ arms so that they could be given an electric shock if they made a bad choice. Moreover, the experimenter strapped the “student” to a chair, explaining to the “teacher” that it was to prevent him from escaping. “Teacher” and “student” cannot see each other directly, they use the telecommunication transmission way to keep in touch. There were buttons on a total of 30, imposing electric penalties are marked on the each button it controlled by the voltage, starting from 15 volts, increased to 450 volts in turn. In fact, no shock was actually implemented, in the next room, the experimenter turned on a tape recorder, which played a pre recorded scream paired with the action of a generator. However, to make the participants convinced, they first received a 45-volt electric shock as an experience. Although the experimenter said the shock was mild, it was too much for the participants to bear.

    由于事先安排,實際上每組只有一名被試,另一名被試是實驗的助手。因此,參與者總是老師,助手總是學生。在實驗開始時,一名助手和一名被試被安排在兩間用墻隔開的房間里。電極被綁在學生的手臂上,如果他們做出了錯誤的選擇,他們就會受到電擊。此外,實驗者把“學生”綁在椅子上,向“老師”解釋這是為了防止他逃跑?!袄蠋煛焙汀皩W生”不能直接看到對方,他們使用電信傳輸方式保持聯系。上面共有30個按鈕,每個按鈕上都標著施加電刑的電壓,由它控制,從15伏依次增加到450伏。事實上,并沒有實施電擊,在隔壁房間,實驗者打開錄音機,播放預先錄制的尖叫聲,伴隨著發電機的動作。然而,為了讓參與者相信,他們首先接受了45伏的電擊作為體驗。雖然實驗者說電擊是輕微的,但它對參與者來說是難以承受的。

    During the experiment, the “student” made many mistakes intentionally. After the “teacher” pointed out his mistakes, he gave electric shock immediately. The “student” groaned repeatedly. As the voltage rises, the “student” shouts and scolds, then begs, kicks and hits the wall, and finally stops yelling, seemingly fainting. At this point, many of the participants expressed a desire to pause the experiment to check on the students. Many participants paused at 135 volts and questioned the purpose of the experiment. Some went on to take the test after receiving assurances that they were not liable. Some laughed nervously as they heard the students scream. When a participant indicated that he wanted to stop the experiment, the experimenter responded in the following order:

    Please continue.

    This experiment needs you to continue. Please continue.

    It is necessary that you go on.

    You have no choice, you must go on.

    If, after four times of prompting, the participants still wanted to stop, the experiment stopped. Otherwise, the experiment will continue until the punishment voltage applied by the participants increases to the maximum 450 volts and continues for three times.

    In this case, 26 participants (65% of the total) obeyed the experimenter’s order and persisted until the end of the experiment, but showed varying degrees of nervousness and anxiety. Fourteen others (35% of the total) rebelled and refused to carry out the order, saying it was cruel and immoral. After the experiment, Milgram told the truth to all the participants in order to eliminate their anxiety.

    在這種情況下,26名參與者(占總數的65%)服從了實驗者的命令,并一直堅持到實驗結束,但表現出不同程度的緊張和焦慮。另有14人(占總數的35%)反抗并拒絕執行該命令,稱這是殘忍和不道德的。實驗結束后,Milgram告訴所有參與者真相,以消除他們的焦慮。

    Surprisingly, before the experiment, Milgram had asked his fellow psychologists to predict the outcome of the experiment, and they all agreed that only a few people — 1 in 10 or even 1 percent — would be willing to continue punishing until the maximum volt. As a result, in Milgram’s first experiment, 65 percent of the participants (more than 27 out of 40) reached the maximum 450 volts of punishment — even though they all showed discomfort. Everyone paused and questioned the experiment when the volts reached a certain level, and some even said they wanted to give their money back. None of the participants persisted in stopping before reaching 300 volts. Milgram himself and a number of psychologists around the world have since done similar or different experiments, but with similar results. Dr Thomas Blass of the university of Maryland, Baltimore county, repeated the experiment many times and came up with the result: Regardless of the time and place of the experiment, a certain percentage of participants — 61 percent to 66 percent — were willing to apply a lethal voltage to each experiment.

    As Philip Zimbardo recalled, due to little awareness about the experiment, participants who didn’t reach the highest volts didn’t insist that the experiment itself should end, didn’t visit the “student” in the next room, and didn’t ask the experimenter for permission to leave.

    據Philip Zimbardo回憶,由于對實驗的了解很少,沒有達到最高電壓的參與者并不堅持實驗本身應該結束,沒有去拜訪隔壁房間的“學生”,也沒有請求實驗者允許離開。

    Milgram stated in his article The Perils of Obedience (1974) that the legal and philosophical views of obedience are very significant, but they say little about the actions people take when confronted with practical situations. He designed this experiment at Yale university to test an ordinary citizen’s willingness to inflict much or little pain on another human being just because of the orders given by a scientist assisting the experiment. When the authority that led the experiment ordered the participant to harm another person, even more so than the screams of pain the participant had heard, the authority continued to order the participant most of the time, even though the participant was so morally disturbed. Experiments have shown how willing adults are to submit to almost any measure of power, and we must study and explain this phenomenon as soon as possible.

    Milgram在他的文章《服從的危險》(1974)中指出,服從的法律和哲學觀點是非常重要的,但它們很少提到人們在面對實際情況時所采取的行動。他在耶魯大學設計了這個實驗,以測試一個普通公民是否愿意僅僅因為一個協助實驗的科學家的命令而給另一個人施加或多或少的痛苦。當領導實驗的權威命令參與者去傷害另一個人,甚至比參與者聽到的痛苦的尖叫更強烈時,權威在大多數時間里繼續命令參與者,即使參與者在道德上被擾亂了。實驗已經表明,成年人是多么愿意屈從于幾乎任何衡量權力的標準,我們必須盡快研究和解釋這一現象。

    The experiment itself has raised ethical questions about the science of the experiment, which puts extreme emotional pressure on participants. Although the experiment led to valuable discoveries in human psychology, many scientists today would consider such experiments unethical. A later survey found that 84% of the participants at the time said they felt “happy” or “very happy” to have taken part in the experiment, that 15% of the participants chose to be neutral (92% of the participants did the post-survey), and many of them later thanked Milgram. And Milgram kept getting calls from former participants who wanted to help him with his experiments again, or even to join his research team. However, the experience of the experiment did not change every participant for life. Many participants were not told the details based on modern experimental standards, and exit interviews showed that many participants still did not seem to understand what was going on. The main criticism of experiments is not the ethical controversy of their methods, but the significance they represent. A participant from Yale university in 1961 wrote in the magazine of the Jewish Currents: when he wanted to stop in the middle of as a “teacher”, is a suspect to “the whole experiment may be just designed, in order to test an ordinary americans will follow orders against conscience – like Germany during the Nazi period” and this is one of the purpose of the experiment. Milgram, in his book The Perils of Obedience (1974), said, “the question we face is how the conditions we create in the laboratory to bring people to power are related to the Nazi era that we deplored.”

    An ordinary person, just to get his work done, without any personal malice or enmity, can actually be a tool for a horrific process of destruction. Moreover, when their work makes the destruction process obvious, when the tasks they are asked to perform do not conform to their own moral values, most people are unable to resist the orders of leaders.

    一個普通人,只是為了完成他的工作,沒有任何個人惡意或敵意,實際上可以成為一個可怕的破壞過程的工具。此外,當他們的工作使破壞過程變得明顯時,當他們被要求執行的任務不符合他們自己的道德價值觀時,大多數人無法抗拒領導的命令。

    心理學Essay如何寫

    On the basis of the first experiment, Milgram further discusses what factors are involved in the generation of obedience behavior. He explored the manipulation of experimental conditions from the subjective and objective dimensions of obedience. The objective conditions of Milgram’s operation include many.

    Firstly, it is the distance between “teacher” and “student”: The distance between teachers and students is divided into four grades, with 40 participants participating in each grade. After analysing the data, the result shows that the closer the “student” is to “teacher”, the more the participant refuses to obey, and the farther the distance is, the easier the participant is to obey. Secondly, it is the relationship between the experimenter and the participant. The relationship was divided into three situations: the experimenter and the participant were face to face together; the experimenter left after explaining the task and kept in touch with the participant by telephone; the experimenter was not present, and all instructions were played by a tape recorder. The results showed that in the first case, the participants obeyed three times more than in the other cases. Thirdly, it is the status of the experimenter. The results showed that the higher the status of the experimenters, the higher the number of the “students” who were tested with the strongest electric shock.

    首先是“老師”與“學生”之間的距離:教師與學生之間的距離分為四個年級,每個年級有40名參與者參與。通過對數據的分析,結果表明,“學生”與“老師”越近,參與者越拒絕服從,距離越遠,參與者越容易服從。其次,它是實驗者和被試之間的關系。這種關系被分為三種情況:實驗者和被試面對面;實驗者在解釋完任務后離開,并通過電話與參與者保持聯系;實驗人員不在場,所有的指令都由錄音機播放。結果顯示,在第一種情況下,參與者服從的次數是其他情況的三倍。第三,是實驗者的地位。結果表明,實驗者的地位越高,接受最強電擊測試的“學生”數量就越多。

    In addition, there are many factors affecting obedience, which can be summarised into three aspects:

    the sender of the order. His authority, whether he supervises the execution of orders, affects obedience.

    the executor of a command. His moral level, personality characteristics and cultural background will also affect his obedience to orders.

    situational factors. For example, whether someone supports his refusal behavior, what is the example behavior of those around him, how is the reward structure set, how is the feedback of his refusal or execution of orders, etc., will also affect the individual’s obedience behavior.

    In conclusion, just like some social psychologists believe that there are two main reasons why individuals obey behaviors. The first is legal power. We usually think that in certain situations, society has given certain social roles more power, and it is our duty to obey them. For example, students should obey teachers, patients should obey doctors, etc. In the laboratory, participants should obey the experimenter, especially the unfamiliar situation strengthens the participants’ readiness to obey the orders of the experimenter. The second is the transfer of responsibility. In general, we have our own sense of responsibility for our own behavior, but if we think that the responsibility for a certain behavior is not our own, especially when a commander takes the initiative to take responsibility, we will think that the leader of the behavior is not our own, but the commander. Therefore, we don’t have to be responsible for this behavior, so there’s a transfer of responsibility, and people don’t think about the consequences of their behavior.

    總之,就像一些社會心理學家認為,有兩個主要原因為什么個體服從行為。首先是法律權力。我們通常認為,在某些情況下,社會賦予了某些社會角色更多的權力,我們有責任遵守這些角色。例如,學生應該服從老師,病人應該服從醫生,等等。在實驗室中,被試應服從實驗者,特別是在不熟悉的情境中,增強了被試服從實驗者命令的意愿。第二是責任的轉移。一般來說,我們有自己的責任感對我們自己的行為,但是,如果我們認為某種行為的責任不是我們自己的,特別是當指揮官主動承擔責任的時候,我們會認為,領導者的行為不是我們自己的,但指揮官。因此,我們不必為這種行為負責,所以有一種責任轉移,人們不會考慮他們行為的后果。

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