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    COURSEWORK格式范文:Comparison of Forced Migration and Voluntary Migration

    論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-07-21 11:14:00 來源:www.mobile1apps.com 作者:留學作業網

    COURSEWORK格式-強迫移民和自愿移民的比較。本文是一篇留學生coursework寫作格式范文,主要內容是圍繞“對于飽受戰爭蹂躪的國家的大多數人來說,現實是生活確實是骯臟、野蠻和短暫的?!卑退埂ぜ{扎里說的這句話開始。研究強迫移民和自愿移民的比較分析。coursework范文通過伊朗和巴基斯坦在1997年停止登記新的阿富汗難民,提出這意味著阿富汗人必須比鄰國尋求庇護。 自1999年以來,在塔利班統治下的生活惡化后,大量阿富汗人開始逃離以尋求安全,許多人試圖前往澳大利亞,希望過上更好的生活。下面是關于留學生coursework寫作格式范文的全部內容,共參考。

    coursework格式范文

    Factors contributing to departure from Afghanistan: 導致離開阿富汗的因素:
    “For the majority of people in war-torn countries, the reality is that life is indeed nasty, brutish and short.”[1] States Abbas Nazaari.[2] Iran and Pakistan stopped registering new Afghan refugees in 1997, meaning Afghans had to look further than neighbouring states for refuge.[3] From 1999, a significantly increased number of Afghans began to flee for safety after life under Taliban rule worsened, many sought to get to Australia in hopes for a better life.[4]
    Political and Ideological factors contributing to migrants’ departure from Afghanistan include the imposition of the strict interpretation of Islamic Sharia law upon the entirety of Afghanistan. Most Afghans, worn out by years of drought, famine and war, approved of the Taliban on the promise of peace. However, with the Taliban in power, the threat to personal security for ethnic minorities had increased, and serious human rights abuses began.
    導致移民離開阿富汗的政治和意識形態因素包括對整個阿富汗嚴格解釋伊斯蘭教法。大多數阿富汗人因多年的干旱、饑荒和戰爭而筋疲力盡,他們贊同塔利班對和平的承諾。然而,隨著塔利班掌權,少數民族的人身安全受到的威脅增加,嚴重侵犯人權的行為開始發生。
    The Taliban had imposed a strict social code, to comply with Sharia Law. This included severe restrictions on women’s freedom of movement, expression, and association.[5] Women and men would be publicly beaten for not adhering to the Taliban’s dress code.
    塔利班強加了嚴格的社會準則,以遵守伊斯蘭教法。這包括對婦女行動、言論和結社自由的嚴格限制。男女將因不遵守塔利班的著裝規定而遭到公開毆打。
    Human rights were thrown out the window, Taliban militia would carry out arbitrary killings of civilians on mass.[6] One group in particular subject to these attacks were the ethnic minority group, the Hazaras. In August 1998, thousands of Hazara civilians[7] – despite age or gender – were reported to have been massacred by Taliban guards following the capture of the northern city Mazar-e Sharif from anti-Taliban forces.[8]
    人權被拋出窗外,塔利班民兵會對平民進行任意屠殺。[受到這些襲擊的一個群體是少數民族哈扎拉人。1998年8月,據報道,在北部城市馬扎里沙里夫被反塔利班部隊占領后,數千名哈扎拉平民——無論年齡或性別——被塔利班警衛屠殺。
    Afghanistan was not safe.    阿富汗并不安全。
    Factors facilitating and impeding the physical and bureaucratic travel of Afghans:  便利和阻礙阿富汗人實際旅行和公務旅行的因素:
    In 2001, 438 Afghans fled their homes in hope for a better life in – where they thought would be – Australia. The story of the TAMPA refugees will help illustrate the Migration pattern.
    2001年,438名阿富汗人逃離家園,希望在他們認為應該在的澳大利亞過上更好的生活。坦帕難民的故事將有助于說明移民模式。
    The Journey from Afghanistan: 阿富汗之旅:
    In the middle of the night, the Nazari family, a family of ethnic minority Hazara, travelled from Afghanistan to Pakistan, where they stayed in a one-bedroom apartment while illegal travel documents were organised. Indonesia was to be the next step, to get to Indonesia they boarded a plane using the travel documents they had obtained in Pakistan. They stayed in Indonesia for two months while more illegal travel documents were organised. In Indonesia they haand to find a ship to get to Australia. One night they caught a bus to Port Meerak, where they caught up with the other Hazara families who were escaping atrocities in Afghanistan. The boat they boarded was the NV Palapa, a small fishing vessel with the capacity of 40. That night, 438 Afghans crammed onto the Palapa and set sail. The second day on the Palapa, the engine failed. The following day an SOS sign was put up, and theTampa, a Norwegian cargo shipheading from Australia to Singapore picked up the 438 passengers. The Palapa sank as the last of the passengers boarded the Tampa. From the Tampa, the Afghan refugees were wanting to go to Australia, where they had hoped to be processed.
    午夜,哈扎拉少數民族的納扎里一家從阿富汗前往巴基斯坦,在那里他們住在一間只有一間臥室的公寓里,非法旅行證件被組織起來。印尼是下一步,為了到達印尼,他們使用在巴基斯坦獲得的旅行證件登上了一架飛機。他們在印尼停留了兩個月,同時組織了更多的非法旅行證件。在印尼,他們想找艘船去澳大利亞。一天晚上,他們乘公共汽車前往米拉克港,在那個里他們趕上了其他逃離阿富汗暴行的哈扎拉家庭。他們登上的船是內華達帕拉帕號,這是一艘可容納40人的小漁船。當晚,438名阿富汗人擠進帕拉帕并啟航。在帕拉帕號上的第二天,發動機出現故障。第二天,一個SOS標志被掛了起來,一艘從澳大利亞開往新加坡的挪威貨船theTampa搭載了438名乘客。最后一名乘客登上坦帕號時,帕拉帕號沉沒。來自坦帕的阿富汗難民希望前往澳大利亞,他們希望在那里得到處理。
    Political impediment: 政治障礙:
    The Tampa arrived in Australian waters in the midst of an election. The policy on migrants had changed.[9] At the time of the Palapa’s departure of Indonesia, it was known to be Australia’s policy to rescue asylum seekers at sea, where they would then be detained in Australia while their claims for protection were processed. If the claims of the asylum were successful, the asylum seekers would receive a permanent protection visa. If the claims were not accepted, they would be returned to the country they had fled.
    坦帕號在選舉期間抵達澳大利亞水域。移民政策已經改變。 在帕拉帕人離開印度尼西亞時,眾所周知,澳大利亞的政策是在海上救助尋求庇護者,然后在澳大利亞拘留他們,同時處理他們的保護要求。如果庇護申請成功,尋求庇護者將獲得永久保護簽證。如果索賠不被接受,他們將被送回他們逃離的國家。
    The Prime Minister of the time, John Howard, closed the doors on refugees.[10] The Tampa was forced back by SAS troops and the ship’s captain was under pressure to get Cargo back to Singapore. The refugees were transferred to the HMAS Manoora, where they waited for asylum after Australia refused to accept them, creating an international affair over which country would, or should, offer sanctuary on humanitarian grounds.[11]
    當時的首相約翰·霍華德對難民關閉了大門?!疤古痢碧柋籗AS部隊逼退,船長面臨將貨物運回新加坡的壓力。難民被轉移到HMAS Manoora,在澳大利亞拒絕接受難民后,他們在那里等待庇護,這造成了一個國際事務,該國將或應該基于人道主義理由提供庇護。
    In regard to the decision on what to do with the Tampa refugees, by 2 September, the Australian Government had obtained agreements with Nauru and New Zealand. The Royal Australian Navy took the Tampa’s asylum-seekers to Nauru, from here 131 of them were sent to New Zealand. The remaining were processed on Nauru, which took between three months to three years for some. For the Nazari family, New Zealand was the end of the 6-month journey from their village In Afghanistan. They were among the 131 that arrived in Auckland, where they were transferred to Mangere refuge center and processed.
    關于如何處理坦帕難民的決定,截至9月2日,澳大利亞政府已與瑙魯和新西蘭達成協議。澳大利亞皇家海軍將坦帕號的尋求庇護者送往瑙魯,其中131人從這里被送往新西蘭。剩下的在瑙魯處理,有些需要三個月到三年的時間。對于納扎里一家來說,新西蘭是他們從阿富汗村莊6個月旅程的終點。他們是抵達奧克蘭的131人中的一員,在那里他們被轉移到Mangere避難中心并接受處理。
    This group of Asylum seekers were lucky, many boat people set out on journeys just as the Tampa refugees had, but the physical and bureaucratic route is very dangerous, and fill of uncertainty. Many don’t make the journey safely.
    這群尋求庇護者是幸運的,許多船民像坦帕難民一樣踏上了旅途,但實際和官僚路線非常危險,充滿了不確定性。許多人在旅途中并不安全。
    The reception and settlement of the Afghan refugees in NZ: 在新西蘭接收和安置阿富汗難民:
    New Zealand had signed an international convention that supports the right of people to seek asylum, this was called the 1951 Refugee Convention which is.[12] This convention is “…the key legal document that forms the basis of our work. Ratified by 145 State parties, it defines the term ‘refugee’ and outlines the rights of the displaced, as well as the legal obligations of States to protect them.”[13]
    新西蘭簽署了一項國際公約,支持人們尋求庇護的權利,該公約被稱為1951年難民公約。 該公約是“……構成我們工作基礎的關鍵法律文件 它由145個締約國定義了“難民”一詞,概述了流離失所者的權利以及各國保護他們的法律義務?!?nbsp;            
    Helen Clark was Prime Minster at the time and decided to let in 131 of the Afghans. New Zealand government welcomed the Asylum seekers and supported their integration into our society.
    海倫·克拉克當時是首相,她決定讓131名阿富汗人入境。新西蘭政府歡迎尋求庇護者,并支持他們融入我們的社會。
    “The New Zealand government and public were watching and taking pity on our situation, they welcomed us to our new homeland with open arms.”[15] States one of many Afghans from the Tampa.
    “新西蘭政府和公眾都在關注并同情我們的處境,他們張開雙臂歡迎我們來到我們的新家園?!?坦帕的許多阿富汗人之一說。
    Following the arrival of the Tampa refugees, the New Zealand Government relocated some of the refugees families from Afghanistan to New Zealand as a humanitarian gesture to reunite relatives.[16] The Tampa refugees have created lives for themselves and live among us as New Zealanders, “In the beginning we were welfare dependent, but gradually we built ourselves up to integrate into the fabric of New Zealand society.”[17]
    坦帕難民抵達后,新西蘭政府將一些難民家庭從阿富汗遷往新西蘭,作為一種人道主義姿態,以使親屬團聚。坦帕難民為自己創造了生活,并作為新西蘭人生活在我們中間,“起初我們依賴福利,但逐漸地我們建立了自己,融入新西蘭社會的結構?!?br/>Tody, the Tampa refugees live as New Zealanders – they are business owners, university graduates, with families of their own in an environment where they feel safe and accepted.
    Voluntary migration:
      今天,坦帕難民像新西蘭人一樣生活——他們是企業主、大學畢業生,在他們感到安全和被接受的環境中擁有自己的家庭。
    -          Tangata o le Moana: Pacific Islander’s migration to New Zealand: 太平洋島民向新西蘭的移民:
    Factors contributing to the departure from Pacific Island: 導致離開太平洋島嶼的因素:

    There are many stories and has been large debate regarding exactly what year Polynesians began settling in New Zealand, and how they achieved this. The current understanding of Polynesian’s journey to New Zealand is that they migrated from East and central Polynesia.[18] Their migration was deliberate, and occurred at different times, in different canoes.
    關于波利尼西亞人是什么年開始在新西蘭定居的,以及他們是如何做到這一點的,有很多故事,也有很大的爭論。目前對波利尼西亞人新西蘭之旅的理解是,他們從東波利尼西亞和中波利尼西亞遷徙。他們的遷徙是故意的,在不同的時間,在不同的獨木舟上發生。
    According to Maori, the first Polynesian explorer to reach New Zealand was Kupe, who travelled across the Pacific in a Polynesian-style voyaging canoe. It is thought Kupe reached New Zealand 1070 years ago, using subtropical weather systems, star constellations, water currents and animal migration patterns to find their way from their native islands in central Polynesia to New Zealand.
    據毛利人說,第一個到達新西蘭的波利尼西亞探險家是庫佩,他乘坐波利尼西亞風格的獨木舟穿越太平洋。據信,庫佩于1070年前到達新西蘭,利用亞熱帶天氣系統、星座、水流和動物遷徙模式,從波利尼西亞中部的土著島嶼找到通往新西蘭的路。
    Over hundreds of years a significant number of pacific islanders have migrated to New Zealand.[19]
    數百年來,大量太平洋島民移民到新西蘭。
    Pacific Islands and New Zealand have had political ties from 1840 as a result of the  relationship through colonisation by the British. Migration from the Pacific Islands has historically been voluntary, with individuals and families often migrating for education and employment opportunities.
    由于英國的殖民統治,太平洋島嶼和新西蘭從1840年起就有了政治聯系。太平洋島嶼的移民歷來都是自愿的,個人和家庭經常為了教育和就業機會而移民。
    Factors facilitating and impeding the physical and bureaucratic travel of Migrants:
    便利和阻礙移民身體和公務旅行的因素:

    The Polynesian navigators guided their canoes to New Zealand by using their knowledge of the environment and interpretation of a range of natural signs including landmarks, island blocks, birds, stars, swells, clouds to find their way to land.[20] This was exploration, voluntary migration.
    波利尼西亞航海家利用他們對環境的了解和對一系列自然標志的解讀,引導他們的獨木舟到達新西蘭,這些自然標志包括地標、島嶼、鳥類、恒星、涌浪和云層,以找到登陸的道路。這就是探索,自愿移民。
    Migratory birds may have helped explorers discover new lands. Some explorers followed the birds to find out where they went. The stars are usually a navigator’s main guide because they move in predictable ways across the night sky. A star path is a series of stars that rise or set at the same point across the horizon. Sea markers such as reefs, whales, driftwood and changes in colour can indicate land is near. Clouds can indicate hidden land. Clouds travel more slowly overland and gather speed beyond it. Clouds can glow if passing over lagoons or reflect colours such as green of forests.
    候鳥可能幫助探險者發現了新的土地。一些探險家跟蹤這些鳥,找出它們去了哪里。恒星通常是導航員的主要向導,因為它們在夜空中以可預測的方式移動。恒星軌跡是指在地平線上同一點上升起或落下的一系列恒星。珊瑚礁、鯨魚、浮木和顏色變化等海洋標記可以表明陸地就在附近。云可以指示隱藏的土地。云層在陸地上傳播得更慢,速度也更快。云朵經過瀉湖時會發光,或反射出森林的綠色等顏色。               
    In recent times, the close state relations and employment opportunities in New Zealand have led to considerable migration of Pacific peoples to New Zealand.
    近年來,新西蘭密切的國家關系和就業機會導致太平洋人民大量移民到新西蘭。
    New Zealand citizenship and the rights of residence for Cook Islanders, Niueans and Tokelauans have made the migration to New Zealand a relatively simple process. There has also been substantial migration to New Zealand from Samoa, Tonga and Fiji, though these Polynesians do not have New Zealand citizenship, as a result of this migration from these islands has been influenced by periodic changes in New Zealand government policy.
    庫克群島人、紐埃人和托克勞人的新西蘭公民身份和居住權使移民到新西蘭成為一個相對簡單的過程。雖然這些波利尼西亞人沒有新西蘭公民身份,但也有大量人從薩摩亞、湯加和斐濟移民到新西蘭,因為這些島嶼的移民受到新西蘭政府政策定期變化的影響。
    The Pacific population in New Zealand as recorded in the 2013 census was  95,941, this figure is 7.4 percent of New Zealand’s population.[21] The number of people who identify under Pacific peoples ethnicity increased 11.3 percent from the 2006 Census.[22] In some cases the New Zealand-resident population was larger than the population of the original island home.
    2013年人口普查記錄的新西蘭太平洋人口為95941人,占新西蘭人口的7.4%。與2006年人口普查相比,太平洋族裔下的人口數量增加了11.3%。[在某些情況下,新西蘭居民的人口比原來居住在島上的人口多。
    In 2007 the Recognised Seasonal Employer scheme was introduced, this scheme brought in thousands of workers from the Pacific Islands annually to work in New Zealand horticulture and viticulture.[23] This is a big encouragement for Pacific Islander’s to travel to New Zealand, though it was merely an option they had, not something they had to do.
    2007年推出了公認的季節性雇主計劃,該計劃每年從太平洋島嶼吸引數千名工人到新西蘭從事園藝和葡萄栽培工作。這大大鼓勵了太平洋島民前往新西蘭,盡管這只是他們的一個選擇,而不是他們必須做的事情。
    The experiences of Pacific Islander’s reception and settlement in NZ: 太平洋島民在新西蘭的接待和定居經驗:
    Pacific Islanders were welcomed into New Zealand, as they have such similar language and culture to Maori, the first Pacific settlers found it relatively easy to communicate and establish themselves.
    太平洋島民受到新西蘭的歡迎,因為他們的語言和文化與毛利人非常相似,第一批太平洋定居者發現溝通和建立自己相對容易。
    After the colonisation of New Zealand, Pacific Islanders were gradually Marginalised alongside Maori. Within the education and work system it is clear that while they may already be or have the opportunity to be New Zealand citizens, they are set on a backfoot. New Zealand government is, however, seemingly and slowly trying to close the gap between the economic and social disparity between that of Pacific islanders and New Zealand Europeans.
    新西蘭殖民后,太平洋島民與毛利人一起逐漸被邊緣化。在教育和工作體系中,很明顯,雖然他們可能已經或有機會成為新西蘭公民,但他們正處于倒退狀態。然而,新西蘭政府似乎正在緩慢地試圖縮小太平洋島民與新西蘭歐洲人之間的經濟和社會差距。
    Forced vs Voluntary: 強制與自愿:
    As can be seen above, there is a clear and defined difference between forced migration and voluntary migration. Looking to the Afghan refugees to New Zealand is a clear example of forced migration, where it would genuinely have not been safe to continue to reside in Afghanistan.
    如上所述,強迫移徙和自愿移徙之間有著明確的區別。將阿富汗難民轉移到新西蘭就是一個明顯的強迫移民例子,在那里繼續居住在阿富汗確實不安全。
    The Pacific people however, is a clear example of voluntary migration. It would not have impacted the safety or livelihood of the Pacific people if they had stayed in the Island’s, however saw an opportunity to move somewhere that may provide better education, or employment opportunities and so made the choice to uplift and travel across to New Zealand.
    然而,太平洋人民是自愿移徙的一個明顯例子。如果太平洋人民留在該島的話,他們的安全或生計不會受到影響,但是他們看到了一個機會,可以搬到一個可以提供更好教育或就業機會的地方,因此選擇提升并前往新西蘭。
    We can see world politics plays a large part in migration, both forced migrants and voluntary migrants. The Afghan refugees would not have settled in New Zealand if it weren’t for Helen Clark’s government of the day, and their policy on Asylum seekers – Such as there would have been no debacle if Australia hadn’t closed their gates to refugees. The same goes for Pacific Islanders – their migration may not have happened on such a large scale if it weren’t for the right to citizenship for Cook Islanders, Niueans and Tokelauans, or if the Recognised Seasonal Employer scheme was not initiated.

    在這篇留學生coursework寫作格式范文中我們可以看到,世界政治在移民中發揮了很大作用,包括強迫移民和自愿移民。如果沒有海倫·克拉克(Helen Clark)當時的政府和他們對尋求庇護者的政策,阿富汗難民就不會在新西蘭定居——例如,如果澳大利亞沒有對難民關閉大門,就不會出現崩潰。太平洋島民也是如此——如果不是為了庫克群島人、紐埃人和托克勞人的公民權,或者如果沒有啟動公認的季節性雇主計劃,他們的移民可能不會如此大規模。本站提供各國各專業coursework寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。

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