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    Assignment格式范文:Power and Conflict in Planning – China’s Major Land Reclamation Project

    論文價格: 免費 時間:2022-07-06 11:58:22 來源:www.mobile1apps.com 作者:留學作業網

    Assignment格式范文-規劃中的權力與沖突——中國重大土地復墾項目。本文是一篇留學生Assignment格式參考范文,是一篇符合國外大學assignment格式要求的作業。主要內容是講述一個由香港歷史上第一任行政長官領導的智囊團與三家主要的全球顧問就一個結構不良的問題展開合作,提議收回約2200公頃土地,主要用于經濟適用房和新的商業機會。

    現在被稱為“大嶼山明天計劃”的擬議中的人工島將在大嶼山以東、考宜洲以南、香港市中心以西的南中國海新建地區容納多達110萬人。在從每個周圍島嶼提供擬議的高速公路和鐵路(全部納入水下)后,該項目的成本約為7000億港元(890億美元),其中不包括島嶼本身的道路、公用事業、公共住房和各種社區設施(如醫院和學校)的成本。由于預算超支現在已成為香港的慣例,價格實際上將超過1萬億港元(1280億美元)——香港的財政儲備在2017/18財年末達到1.1萬億港元。強烈的反對團體已經介入,希望分享來自不同立場的信息,包括海水上漲的威脅,以及由全球變暖引起的更嚴重和更頻繁的風暴,明顯的預算問題,以及一個漫長的時間框架,這將導致棕地土地上局部開發的某種長期解決方案。下面就一起來參考一下這篇Assignment格式范文的全部內容。

    assignment格式范文

    Introduction 簡介

    A think tank led by the first Chief Executive in Hong Kong’s history has joined with three major global consultants regarding an ill-structured issue to propose reclaiming ~2,200 hectares of land, predominantly for affordable housing and new commercial opportunities. Now known as the “Lantau Tomorrow Plan” the proposed artificial island would house up to 1.1 million people in a newly created area in the South China Sea just east of Lantau Island, south of Kau Yi Chau, and west of downtown Hong Kong. After suppling the proposed motorways and railways from each surrounding island (all to be integrated under water) the costs of the project presses around HK$700 Billion ($89 billion USD), which does not account for the cost of the roads on the island itself, utilities, the public housing, and various community facilities such as hospitals and schools. As overrunning the budget has now become routine in Hong Kong, the price will effectively be upwards of HK$1 Trillion (128 Billion USD) – Hong Kong’s fiscal reserves stood at HK$1.1 trillion at the end of the 2017/18 fiscal year. Strong opposition groups have stepped in hoping to share information from various positions including the threat of rising sea waters with more severe and frequent storms induced from global warming, obvious budget concerns, and a lengthy timeframe that will result in a sort-term solution of local development on brownfield land.

    Participants & Stakeholders 參與者和利益相關者

     Hong Kong’s government and Chief Executive say the Lantau Tomorrow Plan will solve the crisis of the city’s lack of ability to provide affordable housing and developable land. The waiting time last year in the city for public housing was over five-years (Hale & Hale 2019) making the argument enticing for many. The project got its initial “Lantau Tomorrow” name when announced by Chief Executive, Carrie Lam Cheng Yuet-ngor, as a cornerstone in a recent policy address, which has put residents of multiple surrounding islands on high alert. Backlash from the public sector has sparked a number of protests where critics of the plan say the project is unnecessary, unaffordable, and unsustainable while conservationists and natives argue the threat of marine habitats, ocean current, and the ecosystem itself would be put in danger. Multiple takes on the plan, especially in deep water areas, are coined “not-scientific nor realistic”. (Ying 2018)

    香港政府和行政長官表示,大嶼山明日計劃將解決香港缺乏能力提供經濟適用房和可開發土地的危機。去年,該市等待公共住房的時間超過了五年(Hale&Hale 2019),這使得這一論點吸引了許多人。行政長官林鄭月娥在最近的一份施政報告中宣布,該項目最初的名字是“大嶼山明日”,作為施政報告的基石。這份報告使周邊多個島嶼的居民高度警惕。來自公共部門的強烈反對引發了一系列抗議,批評該計劃的人士表示,該項目沒有必要、負擔不起、不可持續,而環保主義者和當地人則認為,海洋棲息地、洋流和生態系統本身的威脅將處于危險之中。這項計劃的多項舉措,尤其是在深水區,被稱為“不科學也不現實”。

    Tranquil lives of Lantau Island also pushback on this project due to the unwanted aim at connecting the city closely to mainland China and its eventual task of being a gateway to the Greater Bay area, a campaign to integrate Hong Kong with southern Chinese Cities (Ying 2018). Lantau Tomorrow received heavy questioning after getting accused of being a gift to private business to enable them to make huge profits, as a similar proposal was made by a group consisting of governors and supporters whom represent some of the world’s major developers and powerful insiders: New World, Henderson Development co., Hang Lung, and many more – creating speculation that the developers, powerful business owners, and the city are really just in it for the eventual payout and are overlooking a large portion of those impacted and the current-day fiscal concerns. Those involved ultimately come from pollution experts, environmentalist, native residents, major world developers, private influencers, and the top-down Chinese government whom all have to collaboratively work towards a consensus for possible long-lasting change.

    大嶼山寧靜的生活也阻礙了該項目的實施,因為該項目旨在將大嶼山與中國大陸緊密相連,并最終成為大灣區的門戶,這是一場將香港與中國南方城市融合的運動。大嶼山明天受到嚴厲質詢,因為有人指責它是給私營企業的禮物,使它們能夠賺取巨額利潤,而由代表世界上一些主要開發商和有權勢的內部人士的州長和支持者組成的團體也提出了類似的建議:新世界、亨德森發展有限公司、恒隆、,還有更多——讓人猜測,開發商、有權勢的企業主和城市實際上只是為了最終的支出,忽略了大部分受影響的人和當前的財政問題。這些參與者最終來自污染專家、環境保護主義者、當地居民、世界主要開發商、私人影響者和自上而下的中國政府,他們都必須共同努力,為可能的長期變化達成共識。

    Motivating values 激勵價值觀

    Mui Wo, the nearest civilization to the reclamation project, is a sleepy town of 5,000 people on Lantau Island. It draws visitors to its many cafés and restaurants, a beach, and scenic hiking trails that wrap around the coastline with views of nearby islands. “Although Lantau is Hong Kong’s largest island, Mui Wo has a distinctively offbeat vibe compared to the rest of the city, with neighborhood dogs relaxing on the sidewalk and the pervasive calm typical of coastal tourist towns. It’s a community that could almost be in semi-rural Hawaii, dotted with abandoned farms and tropical vegetation as well as overgrown Chinese graves and low-rise apartment buildings.” (Hale & Hale 2019). The residents of Mui Wo should expect a drastic change to their native atmosphere, the cafés that once provided sweeping views of the sea will soon have unprecedented views of construction – and eventually high-rise towners. While this is broadly considered a NIMBY issue, multiple values are also being acted upon in connection to the project’s idea. With a joining of residents and activists on nearby islands being concerned that this solution to housing places too high of a toll on local and marine environment around the towns Mui Wo and Kau Yi Chau (Kuo, 2018). The project will create a narrowing of the passageway to the open sea and will create an almost enclosed environment, where water-current movement will be greatly reduced, oxygen contents of the water slowly depleted, and, unfortunately, a perfect place for garbage and debris to pile up year-round creating a nightmare for the native lives on the island of Lantau.

    梅窩是離填海工程最近的一個文明城市,是大嶼山一個有5000人的沉睡小鎮。它吸引游客到它的許多咖啡館和餐館、海灘和風景優美的徒步小道,這些小道環繞著海岸線,可以看到附近的島嶼?!半m然大嶼山是香港最大的島嶼,但梅窩與香港其他地方相比,有著獨特的另類氛圍,鄰里的狗在人行道上休息,到處都是沿海旅游城鎮特有的寧靜。這是一個幾乎可以位于夏威夷半鄉村的社區,到處都是廢棄的農場和熱帶植被,還有雜草叢生的中國墳墓和低矮的房屋公寓樓?!?。梅窩的居民應該期待著當地的氣氛發生巨大的變化,曾經可以俯瞰大海的咖啡館很快就會有前所未有的建筑景觀,最終會有高樓大廈。雖然這被廣泛認為是一個靈活的問題,但與項目理念相關的多種價值觀也在發揮作用。隨著附近島嶼上的居民和活動家的加入,他們擔心這種解決方案對梅窩鎮和九宜洲鎮周圍的當地和海洋環境造成了太高的影響。該項目將使通往公海的通道變窄,并將創造一個幾乎封閉的環境,在那里水流運動將大大減少,水中的含氧量將慢慢耗盡,不幸的是,這是一個垃圾和碎片常年堆積的理想場所,給大嶼山的原住民生活帶來噩夢。

    Proponents of the project say it is aimed squarely at one of Hong Kong’s biggest issues: a lack of affordable homes. Hong Kong, home to 7 million people, has some of the world’s most expensive housing. Lantau Tomorrow has promised 70% of the new residential land developed would be devoted to public housing (Zoning: 1/3 residential, 2/3 commercial, public facilities, and new industries). Pro-democracy lawmakers and environmentalist argue that Hong Kong doesn’t need a mega-project taking over twenty years to complete, but rather needing more urgent solutions like provisional hosing on brownfield land in the New Territories as local government estimates the city to peak in population by the year 2043 at 9 million people. Tung Chee-hwa, the initial think tank founder, knows the importance of short-term solutions as well insisting on the potential of privately-owned farmland in the New Territories of China and noting it would be necessary to develop damaged agricultural land, locally referred as a brownfield site.

    該項目的支持者表示,該項目正是針對香港最大的問題之一:缺乏經濟適用房。擁有700萬人口的香港擁有世界上最昂貴的住房。大嶼山明日承諾,新開發的住宅用地中,70%將用于公共住房(分區:1/3住宅、2/3商業、公共設施和新工業)。民主派議員和環保人士辯稱,香港不需要一個需要20多年才能完成的大型項目,而是需要更緊迫的解決方案,如在新界的棕色土地上臨時澆水,因為當地政府估計,到2043年,香港人口將達到900萬。最初的智囊團創始人董建華知道短期解決方案的重要性,同時也堅持中國新界私有農田的潛力,并指出有必要開發受損農田,在當地被稱為棕地。

    resulting conflict 由此產生的沖突

    Many skeptics believe that the estimates on the number of housing needed to sustain the areas growth is blown out of proportion just to achieve the necessary status to construct such a project. Insiders on Hong Kong’s growth say the city needs to prepare for a population rise from 7.3 million to 9 million residents by the year 2043. Interestingly noted by Lam Chiu Ying, writer for the South China Morning Post, “Where will these 9 million come from? Young couples today are not having as many babies as before. In fact, the latest official projection by the Census and Statistics Department is that the population will peak at 8.22 million in 2043, which is some 800,000 fewer than the 9 million cited in the 2030 Plus blueprint” (SCMP, 2018). As the proposed 1,000-hectare Lantau Tomorrow Plan is expected to house a comfortable 700,000 people, many against the build point to the spare capacity for housing on-land rather than created land… in their argument – what more than a 2,200-hectare project?

    許多懷疑者認為,僅僅為了達到建設這樣一個項目的必要地位,對維持該地區增長所需住房數量的估計就被夸大了。了解香港經濟增長的內部人士表示,香港需要為2043年人口從730萬增至900萬做好準備。有趣的是,南華早報記者林指出,“這900萬人來自哪里?如今的年輕夫婦沒有以前那么多孩子了。事實上,人口普查局最新的官方預測是,2043年人口將達到峰值822萬,比2030年以后藍圖中引用的900萬人少80萬左右”。由于擬議的1000公頃大嶼山明日計劃預計將容納70萬人,因此許多人反對建造該計劃,他們指出在土地上建造房屋的剩余容量,而不是在新建土地上建造房屋……在他們的論點中,還有什么比2200公頃的項目更重要?

    Opponents have argued that Hong Kong needs a land reserve, but continuing the idea of such a massive reclamation project does not stand up to scrutiny since the population is consensually agreed upon to decline after the year 2043 and such long-lasting environmental affects, depleted fiscal reserves, and drastically shifted native lives has resulted in conflict; these opponents look for on-land building that will be looked at as more than an insider development to create potentially massive profits with the ability to house the same needed number of people at a much lower cost for the user and the creator. Alternative land supply solutions, like the hundreds of hectares of brownfield sites in the New Territories, were not progressed further, simply because the government would not risk offending the vested interests that prop them up.

    反對者認為,香港需要土地儲備,但繼續進行如此大規模的填海工程的想法經不起審查,因為人們一致同意2043年后人口將減少,而這種長期的環境影響、耗盡的財政儲備和急劇改變的當地生活導致了沖突;這些反對者尋求的土地建筑將被視為不僅僅是一個內部開發,以創造潛在的巨大利潤,并能夠以低得多的成本為用戶和創建者提供相同數量的所需人員。其他土地供應解決方案,如新界數百公頃的棕地,沒有取得進一步進展,只是因為政府不會冒得罪支撐它們的既得利益者的風險。

    Issues of control 控制問題

    The fact that the project will create Hong Kong’s third central business district (CBD) also means it will be a considerable source of revenue for the government, apart from easing the pressure on the existing two CBDs (in terms of demand for office space), while allowing homes to thousands of new residents as well. A public-private partnership is a leading option, out of many, being considered to raise adequate wealth for the expensive project. A US$64.1 million funding request is soon to be sent to the legislature to take feasibility studies further on phase one of the project (phase one completion: 2032; total completion & open to residents: 2043). Residents and activists fear that induced climate change will bring more unpredictability to the area and would not bode well for such a flood-prone investment in respect to the affordable housing. Many politicians and groups working on the future project are overlooking the small mindset of the native residents on the island. The main Lantau Island originally started to gain traction as a habitual piece of land in the early 1990’s where many were seeking clean air, a tight-knit community, and the affordable housing landscape still present to this day.

    該項目將創建香港第三個中央商務區(CBD),這一事實也意味著它將成為政府的一個可觀的收入來源,除了緩解現有兩個中央商務區的壓力(就辦公空間需求而言),同時也讓數千名新居民擁有住房。在許多選擇中,公私合作是一個主要的選擇,可以為這個昂貴的項目籌集足夠的財富。不久將向立法機構提交6410萬美元的資金申請,以進一步開展項目第一階段的可行性研究(第一階段竣工:2032年;總竣工和向居民開放:2043年)。居民和活動家擔心,誘發的氣候變化將給該地區帶來更多的不可預測性,這對于在經濟適用房方面進行如此容易發生洪水的投資來說不是一個好兆頭。許多致力于未來項目的政治家和團體忽視了島上當地居民的小心態。20世紀90年代初,大嶼山原本是一塊慣常的土地,許多人在那里尋求清潔的空氣、緊密的社區和至今仍存在的經濟適用房景觀。

    Against the powerful insiders and the government, itself, the giant reclamation project has groups like White Elephant City, Tycoon Island, and Insanity Reef continuingly pressing rhetoric at organized protests in opposition to the Lantau Tomorrow plan. Demonstrating has become a risky business in Hong Kong, so more than 5,000 people don’t give up their precious Sunday unless they feel passionately about an issue. The East Lantau reclamation policy has certainly ignited genuine widespread public fury and indignation. These days, non-compliance in Hong Kong can mean imprisonment, loss of career, public humiliation and restricted travel opportunities (              Kuo, 2018) – intensifying the governments control on the issue.

    面對權勢內部人士和政府本身,大型填海工程有白象城、大亨島和瘋狂礁等團體,他們在有組織的抗議活動中不斷施壓,反對大嶼山明日計劃。在香港,示威已經成為一項風險很大的業務,因此5000多人不會放棄他們寶貴的星期天,除非他們對某個問題有激情。東大嶼山填海政策確實激起了公眾廣泛的憤怒和憤慨。如今,香港的違規行為可能意味著被監禁、失去職業、公眾羞辱和旅行機會受限,這強化了政府對這一問題的控制。

    power and cooperation 權力與合作

    Through the Communist Party’s control, The Peoples Republic of China is broken into legislative, executive, judicial, and military compromising branches. Including the Urban Planning departments, the government is characterized by a top down approach where the governing heads have almost all say in the decision-making process. In connection with New World, Henderson Development co., Hang Lung, etc., and the Chief Executive herself, the Chinese government has really no pushback besides the relatively small activists’ groups and scholars whom have resulted to protests. Included parties surley involve the residents on several outlying islands, including Lantau, but in a heavily top-down government small voices are almost always overlooked especially in such an ill-structured manner. The ones whom have say in this instance are only hindered by the amount of wealth able to be allocated to the project.

    Assignment范文中提到通過共產黨的領導,中華人民共和國被劃分為立法、行政、司法和軍事部門。包括城市規劃部門在內,政府的特點是采取自上而下的方式,在決策過程中,管理層幾乎都有發言權。關于新世界、恒基發展、恒隆等,以及特首本人,除了相對較小的活動人士團體和引發抗議的學者外,中國政府真的沒有退縮。包括大嶼山在內的多個離島的居民都參與其中,但在一個自上而下的政府中,小聲音幾乎總是被忽視,尤其是在這種結構不良的情況下。在這種情況下,那些有發言權的人只會受到能夠分配給該項目的財富數量的阻礙。本站提供各國各專業Assignment寫作指導服務,如有需要可咨詢本平臺。


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